Leg volume measured anthropometrically was reduced by 12% in the injured leg (5-68 +/- 1-05 litres) compared with the uninjured (6-43 +/- 0-87 litres). Associated with this loss was a similar reduction in the net maximum oxygen uptake achieved in one-leg cycling, from 1-89 +/- 0-21 1/min in the uninjured leg to 1-57 +/- 0-18 1/min in the injured. 3. Measured by a percutaneous needle biopsy technique, a reduction of 42% was found in the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibres sampled from the vastus lateralis of the injured compared with the uninjured leg. 4. Staining for myosin adenosine triphosphatase activity showed that both type I and II fibres were affected, being reduced respectively from 3410 to 1840 micronm2 and from 3810 to 2390 micronm2 cross-sectional area. 5. Possible reasons and implications are discussed for the discrepancy between the magnitude of the difference observed in the gross measurement of leg function (maximum oxygen uptake) and structure (leg volume) as compared with the cellular level (cross-sectional fibre area).
A secondary finding was a high correlation between academic ability and participation; both West Indian and white English participation was proportionally higher in the top streams.
The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is a wonderful Art-deco building faced in Portland Stone. It was where Professor Anthony J Sargeant worked from 1970 until 1977 as a research scientist in the Medical Research Council’s Environmental Physiology Research Unit and where he completed the research for his PhD (part-time) which was awarded by the Board of Studies in Physiology of The University of London for a thesis on the effects of disuse atrophy of human muscle. The School which is a postgraduate school of The University of London is in Keppel Street with side facades on Malet Street and Gower Street. Tony’s office and basement laboratory were on the Malet Street side of the building facing the imposing Senate House building of The University of London.
The combined methodologies demonstrated the specificity of the mATPase staining patterns which correlated to the expression of distinct MyHC isoforms. In addition the results provide evidence that many fibres co-expressed different MyHC isoforms in variable relative amounts, forming a continuum. Staining intensities for mATPase, converted into optical density values by image analysis revealed that a relationship between mATPase and MyHC expression holds for hybrid fibres even when displaying one MyHC type with overwhelming dominance. The results also revealed that three MyHC isoforms I, IIA and IIB can be co-expressed on a single muscle fibre. In such a case mATPase alone, with the current protocols, does not allow an accurate characterization of the specific MyHC-based fibre type(s). Although some hybrid fibres may have displayed a non-uniform expression of myosins along their lengths, most fibres from the IIA/B group (type) remained very stable with respect to the relative amounts of the MyHCs expressed. Finally, a second slow MyHC isoform was recognized on immunoblots of a mixed muscle samples
Immunohistochemical reactions demonstrated that the new method only differentiates those fibres expressing myosin heavy chain IIX. The method revealed a continuum in which the intermediate staining intensities corresponded to hybrid fibres expressing myosin heavy chain IIX in combination with either the IIA or IIB forms. Quantitative histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (by image analysis), used to examine the relationship between staining intensities for mATPase and amounts of myosin heavy chain IIX expression, revealed that the new method discriminates well between hybrid fibres expressing variable amounts of the IIX isoform (r2 = 0.93)