The study was made possible by the development of the isokinetic cycle ergometer which allowed the pedalling rate to be held constant during an all-out sprint effort. [see Anthony J Sargeant, Elizabeth Hoinville, Archie Young (1981)]
Muscle temperature (Tm) at 3 cm depth was respectively 36.6, 39.3, 31.9 and 29.0 degrees C. After warming the legs in a 44 degrees C water bath there was an increase of approximately 11% in maximal peak force and power (PPmax) compared with normal rest while cooling the legs in 18 and 12 degrees C water baths resulted in reductions of approximately 12% and 21% respectively. Associated with an increased maximal peak power at higher Tm was an increased rate of fatigue.
Two subjects performed isokinetic cycling at three different pedalling rates (54, 95 and 140 rev.min-1) demonstrating that the magnitude of the temperature effect was velocity dependent: At the slowest pedalling rate the effect of warming the muscle was to increase PPmax by approximately 2% per degree C but at the highest speed this increased to approximately 10% per degree C.