The fibre type composition showed a higher proportion of the oxidative type IIBd fibres in the middle-aged group [5 months old; 39.8 +/- 6.8 vs. 23.6 +/- 4.2% of the fibre area in the young rats (1.3 months old)] in contrast to the type IIBm fibres (52.9 vs. 67.9%, respectively), while the old group (22 months old) was not different from the middle-aged group. Work output in the last contraction (relative to the first contraction) was not different between the age-groups (53.1 +/- 18.1; 48.0 +/- 6.5 and 61.1 +/- 6.2%, respectively). High-energy phosphate utilization was not different between the groups (150.6 +/- 11.2; 154.6 +/- 15.6 and 157.2 +/- 7.0 mumol g-1 dry wt, respectively). However, the efficiency was approximately 30% lower in the muscles of the youngest group, which corresponds with a lower specific power and specific tension. Since the change in fibre type composition is unlikely to be the cause of the low efficiency in the young animals, the causes remain unclear, but may be related to the rapid growth of the young rats in our study.
Besides morphological changes tetanic force was also found to increase (approximately 307%) up to 120 days. Because this increase in force was greater than the increase in CSA, specific force increased by approximately 29% between 40 and 60 days. Thereafter, specific force stayed rather constant. From 40 until 60 days changes were also found in the force-frequency and force-velocity curve, which indicate a slowing of the muscles (until 60 days). Changes in fibre-type composition of the EDL muscle were found to occur later during growth between 60 and 120 days. In this period an increase in the relative total area of Type IIBd fibres and a decrease in the relative total area of Type IIBm fibres (corresponding to the Type 2X and IIB fibres, respectively), were found; this was apparently due to a conversion of many Type IIBm into Type IIBd fibres and not to a difference in cross-sectional growth between these fibres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The faster contractile properties and greater fatigability of the SCI muscles are in agreement with a characteristic predominance of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. Unexpectedly, the SCI muscles exhibited a force-frequency relationship shifted to the left, most likely as the result of relatively large twitch amplitudes. The results indicate that the contractile properties of large human locomotory muscles can be characterized using the approach described and that the transformation to faster properties consequent upon changes in contractile protein expression following SCI can be assessed. These measurements may be useful to optimize stimulation characteristics for functional electrical stimulation and to monitor training effects induced by electrical stimulation during rehabilitation of paralyzed muscles
DESIGN AND METHODS: Sagittal-plane magnetic resonance images of the right ankle were taken in six subjects at rest and during maximum isometric dorsiflexion at six ankle angles between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion having the body placed in the supine position and the knee flexed at 90 degrees. Instant centres of rotation in the tibio-talar joint, tibialis anterior tendon action lines and moment arms were identified in the sagittal plane at ankle angles of -15 degrees, 0 degrees,+15 degrees and +30 degrees at rest and during maximum isometric dorsiflexion.
RESULTS: At any given ankle angle, the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm during maximum isometric dorsiflexion increased by 0.9-1.5 cm (P<0.01) compared with rest. This was attributed to a displacement of both tibialis anterior tendon action line by 0.8-1.2 cm (P<0.01) and all instant centres of rotation by 0.3-0.4 cm (P<0. 01) distally in relation to their corresponding resting positions.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The assumption that the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm does not change from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion is invalid. Erroneous tendon forces, muscle stresses and joint moments by as much as 30% would be calculated using resting tibialis anterior tendon moment arms in the moment equilibrium equation around the ankle joint during maximum isometric dorsiflexion.
RELEVANCE: A substantial increase in the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm occurs from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion. This needs to be taken into consideration when using planimetric musculoskeletal modelling for analysing maximal static ankle dorsiflexion loads
8 +/- 1.5 % at 22 C. The stimulation frequency-force and -rate of force development relationships were shifted to the left at lower temperatures. Q10 values for the maximal rates of force development and relaxation, and the times for 100 to 50 % and 50 to 25 % force relaxation, were about 2.0 between 37 and 25 C and about 3.8 between 25 and 22 C. However, the time for 50 to 25 % force relaxation had a relatively high Q10 value between 25 and 22 C (6.9) and this parameter also appeared to be more sensitive to fatigue compared to the other indices of relaxation. Nevertheless, the effect of fatigue on all parameters decreased with cooling over the entire (37-22 C) temperature range