The effect of muscle temperature on force measured directly in human muscle

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Sometimes strange things happen in scientific research. The very senior authors Anthony Sargeant and David Jones were responsible for initiating, carrying out experiments, and plotting much of the data that formed the basis of this and another paper to Journal of Physiology. Nevertheless having spent some time getting the research started on visits to Amsterdam they were both surprised to see this paper submited along with another to Journal of Physiology (on which there names do not even appear as authors). There is nothing wrong with either paper but courtesy and proper recognition by junior colleagues of the conceptual origins and contribution would have been more correct behaviour.
Experimental Physiology
Exp Physiol. 1999 Nov;84(6):1137-50

Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the rates of isometric force development and relaxation in electrically activated fresh and fatigued human adductor pollicis muscle. Following immersion of the lower arm for 20 min in water baths of four different temperatures, muscle temperatures were approximately 37, 31, 25 and 22 C. Maximal isometric force was reduced by 16.

8 +/- 1.5 % at 22 C. The stimulation frequency-force and -rate of force development relationships were shifted to the left at lower temperatures. Q10 values for the maximal rates of force development and relaxation, and the times for 100 to 50 % and 50 to 25 % force relaxation, were about 2.0 between 37 and 25 C and about 3.8 between 25 and 22 C. However, the time for 50 to 25 % force relaxation had a relatively high Q10 value between 25 and 22 C (6.9) and this parameter also appeared to be more sensitive to fatigue compared to the other indices of relaxation. Nevertheless, the effect of fatigue on all parameters decreased with cooling over the entire (37-22 C) temperature range

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