The faster contractile properties and greater fatigability of the SCI muscles are in agreement with a characteristic predominance of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. Unexpectedly, the SCI muscles exhibited a force-frequency relationship shifted to the left, most likely as the result of relatively large twitch amplitudes. The results indicate that the contractile properties of large human locomotory muscles can be characterized using the approach described and that the transformation to faster properties consequent upon changes in contractile protein expression following SCI can be assessed. These measurements may be useful to optimize stimulation characteristics for functional electrical stimulation and to monitor training effects induced by electrical stimulation during rehabilitation of paralyzed muscles
Both groups showed improvement but there were no significant differences between the groups. In neither trial was there any correlation between the extent of change in the subjects’ physical fitness due to aerobic exercise and the extent of the improvement of psychiatric scores.
Reductions were found in both optimal stimulation frequency (from 120 to 100 Hz) and optimal shortening velocity (by 16%) indicating that the fibres became slower. Specific power did not change during growth but was obtained at a lower shortening velocity. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes are discussed
Compared with control values, maximal peak power measured after fatiguing exercise was significantly reduced by 23 +/- 19, 28 +/- 11, and 25 +/- 11% at pedaling rates of 90, 105, and 120 rpm, respectively. Reductions in maximum peak power of 11 +/- 8 and 14 +/- 8% at 60 and 75 rpm, respectively, were not significant. The rate of decline in peak power during the 25-s control measurement was least at 60 rpm (5.1 +/- 2.3 W/s) and greatest at 120 rpm (26.3 +/- 13.9 W/s). After fatiguing exercise, the rate of decline in peak power at pedaling rates of 105 and 120 rpm decreased significantly from 21.5 +/- 9.0 and 26.3 +/- 13.9 W/s to 10.0 +/- 7.3 and 13.3 +/- 6.9 W/s, respectively. These experiments indicate that fatigue induced by submaximal dynamic exercise results in a velocity-dependent effect on muscle power. It is suggested that the reduced maximal power at the higher velocities was due to a selective effect of fatigue on the faster fatigue-sensitive fibers of the active muscle mass.
Care was taken that work output during the shortening phase of the first contraction was the same for the different velocities used. Total work output of the 40 contractions was not significantly different between the three groups with different shortening velocities; nor was there a significant difference in the high-energy phosphate consumption over this 10-s exercise period. However, when the ratio of total work output and total energy consumption was calculated a significantly higher efficiency (25-30% in comparison with the efficiency of the other two velocities) was found with the shortening velocity of 50 mm.s-1. There was no significant difference in efficiency between shortening velocities of 25 and 75 mm.s-1. This suggests that with this protocol efficiency showed a velocity-dependent pattern that may have the same shape as the power/velocity curve. Whereas total work output during the 10-s exercise period was not significantly different between the velocities studied, the time course of the changes in work output was quite different. With shortening velocities of 50 and 75 mm.s-1 work output initially increased by maximally 6% and 12% respectively in contrast to a steady level in the contractions with a velocity of 25 mm.s-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Rat medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon complexes (with arrested blood flow) performed a series of ten repeated contractions (1.s-1) with either an active stretch or an isometric phase preceding the shortening. Contraction duration (0.45 s), and shortening duration (0.3 s), distance (6 mm) and velocity (20 mm.s-1) were the same in both types of contraction. Work output during the ten shortening phases was approximately 40% higher in the contractions with an active pre-stretch; in contrast, high-energy phosphate utilization was similar. Over the ten repeated contractions reduction of work output during the shortening phases of both types of contraction was similar in absolute terms (approx. 9.5 mJ). It is suggested that all the extra work performed during the shortening phases after a pre-stretch originated from sources other than cross-bridge cycling, which are hardly affected by fatigue. However, reduction of work output in relative terms, which is how the reduction is often expressed in voluntary exercise, was less after a pre-stretch (26% vs 32%), giving the impression of protection against fatigue by an active pre-stretch.