Besides morphological changes tetanic force was also found to increase (approximately 307%) up to 120 days. Because this increase in force was greater than the increase in CSA, specific force increased by approximately 29% between 40 and 60 days. Thereafter, specific force stayed rather constant. From 40 until 60 days changes were also found in the force-frequency and force-velocity curve, which indicate a slowing of the muscles (until 60 days). Changes in fibre-type composition of the EDL muscle were found to occur later during growth between 60 and 120 days. In this period an increase in the relative total area of Type IIBd fibres and a decrease in the relative total area of Type IIBm fibres (corresponding to the Type 2X and IIB fibres, respectively), were found; this was apparently due to a conversion of many Type IIBm into Type IIBd fibres and not to a difference in cross-sectional growth between these fibres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
DESIGN AND METHODS: Sagittal-plane magnetic resonance images of the right ankle were taken in six subjects at rest and during maximum isometric dorsiflexion at six ankle angles between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion having the body placed in the supine position and the knee flexed at 90 degrees. Instant centres of rotation in the tibio-talar joint, tibialis anterior tendon action lines and moment arms were identified in the sagittal plane at ankle angles of -15 degrees, 0 degrees,+15 degrees and +30 degrees at rest and during maximum isometric dorsiflexion.
RESULTS: At any given ankle angle, the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm during maximum isometric dorsiflexion increased by 0.9-1.5 cm (P<0.01) compared with rest. This was attributed to a displacement of both tibialis anterior tendon action line by 0.8-1.2 cm (P<0.01) and all instant centres of rotation by 0.3-0.4 cm (P<0. 01) distally in relation to their corresponding resting positions.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The assumption that the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm does not change from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion is invalid. Erroneous tendon forces, muscle stresses and joint moments by as much as 30% would be calculated using resting tibialis anterior tendon moment arms in the moment equilibrium equation around the ankle joint during maximum isometric dorsiflexion.
RELEVANCE: A substantial increase in the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm occurs from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion. This needs to be taken into consideration when using planimetric musculoskeletal modelling for analysing maximal static ankle dorsiflexion loads
METHODS: Contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle were studied in seven people with motor-complete SCI who participated in a FES-LCE training program. Subjects trained for 30 min, three times per week for 6 weeks. Contractile speed and fatigue characteristics of electrically stimulated isometric contractions were compared before and after 6 weeks of FES-LCE.
RESULTS: Fatigue resistance improved following FES-LCE training as indicated by the higher forces maintained in response to repetitive electrical stimulation. In contrast with an improved fatigue resistance, the maximal rate of force rise was unaffected, the speed of relaxation increased and the fusion of a 10 Hz force signal decreased. Furthermore, the force-frequency relationship shifted to the right at low stimulation frequencies, indicated by a decline in the ratio of 1 and 100 Hz force responses as well as the ratio of 10 and 100 Hz force responses.
CONCLUSION: FES-LCE training can change the physiological properties of the quadriceps muscle in people with SCI. Even after a short period of training, the stimulated muscles become more resistant to fatigue. Furthermore, the increased speed of relaxation and associated decreased fusion and altered force-frequency relationship following training may be related to adaptations in the calcium handling processes, which reflect an early response of long-term disused muscles.
These reductions were similar to data previously obtained with younger rats (40 days old). However, the velocity data of the muscles which had recovered for 15 min after a long contraction showed a greater reduction in the mature rats. This difference between the two age groups together with a difference in the changes in the initial parts of the isometric force time curves suggest an age-dependent response of the fast-fatigable fibre population of these mixed muscles. In a separate series of experiments the underlying mechanism of the recovery from fatigue was studied in a group of young rats. Fatigue was induced with five long (15 s) contractions (each at 5 min intervals). The recovery of isometric force and power output was monitored with short contractions which indicated a plateau of recovery but the absolute values were still reduced after 60 min (85 and 71% of prefatigue values, respectively). Phosphocreatine concentration recovered rapidly, whereas the ATP concentration was still markedly reduced after 1 h of recovery. The time courses of recovery of inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) and lactate concentrations resembled those of force and power output. Thus it is possible that age-dependent differences in IMP and/or lactate production may play a role in fatigue and recovery from fatigue.
The areas under the 6 time-force curves were added to obtain force-time integral of the experiment. Differences of concentrations of ATP, phosphocreatine and lactate between experimental and contralateral (resting) muscles were used to calculate high-energy phosphate consumption due to stimulation. Muscle mass and cross-sectional area increased (approximately +400% and +300%, respectively) over the rat body mass range studied. Muscle length and length of the most distal fibre bundle increased by approximately 17 mm and 4 mm, respectively. Force-time integral (N.s) increased proportional to cross-sectional area whereas high-energy phosphate consumption (mumoles) increased proportional to muscle mass. The relative fraction of the total energy consumption utilized for force-independent processes was independent of rat body mass. The economy of the actomyosin system was unaffected during growth, whereas economy of the whole muscle decreased during growth by approximately 30% (p less than 0.001). The effect of muscle dimensions on economy is discussed with respect to human endurance capacity measured by voluntary isometric contractions