Rik Gosselink presented this research as part of his PhD in the Vrije University of Amsterdam. The work was directed by Professor Anthony J Sargeant and Professor Marc Decramer.
Diaphragmatic breathing reduces efficiency of breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Margriet Lodder completed this work in Amsterdam as part of her PhD research under the direction of Professor Anthony Sargeant
Care was taken that work output during the shortening phase of the first contraction was the same for the different velocities used. Total work output of the 40 contractions was not significantly different between the three groups with different shortening velocities; nor was there a significant difference in the high-energy phosphate consumption over this 10-s exercise period. However, when the ratio of total work output and total energy consumption was calculated a significantly higher efficiency (25-30% in comparison with the efficiency of the other two velocities) was found with the shortening velocity of 50 mm.s-1. There was no significant difference in efficiency between shortening velocities of 25 and 75 mm.s-1. This suggests that with this protocol efficiency showed a velocity-dependent pattern that may have the same shape as the power/velocity curve. Whereas total work output during the 10-s exercise period was not significantly different between the velocities studied, the time course of the changes in work output was quite different. With shortening velocities of 50 and 75 mm.s-1 work output initially increased by maximally 6% and 12% respectively in contrast to a steady level in the contractions with a velocity of 25 mm.s-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Simultaneous measurement of O2 uptake (VO2) enabled the establishment of the relationship between the rate of the energy expenditure (PVO2) and Po (since when swimming on the MAD system Po = Pd). These individual relationships describing the mechanical efficiency (8-12%) were then used to estimate Po in free swimming from measurements of VO2. Because Pd was directly measured at each velocity studied by use of the MAD system, ep could be calculated according to the equation ep = Pd/(Pd + Pk) = Pd/Po. For the four top class swimmers studied, ep was found to range from 46 to 77%. Total efficiency, defined as the product of mechanical and propelling efficiency, ranged from 5 to 8%.
The present study tested the hypothesis that human skeletal muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover are elevated during exercise at high compared to low contraction frequency when the total power output is the same.
2. Seven subjects performed single-leg dynamic knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at contraction frequencies of 60 and 100 r.p.m. where the total power output (comprising the sum of external and internal power output) was matched between frequencies (54 +/- 5 vs. 56 +/- 5 W; mean +/- S.E.M.). Muscle oxygen uptake was determined from measurements of thigh blood flow and femoral arterial – venous differences for oxygen content (a-v O(2) diff). Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated from measurements of lactate release and muscle lactate accumulation as well as muscle ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) utilisation based on analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and after each exercise bout.
3. Whilst a-v O(2) diff was the same between contraction frequencies during exercise, thigh blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) at 100 compared to 60 r.p.m. Thus, muscle V(O2) was higher (P < 0.05) during exercise at 100 r.p.m. Muscle V(O2) increased (P < 0.05) by 0.06 +/- 0.03 (12 %) and 0.09 +/- 0.03 l min(-1) (14 %) from the third minute to the end of exercise at 60 and 100 r.p.m., respectively, but there was no difference between the two frequencies.
4. Muscle PCr decreased by 8.1 +/- 1.7 and 9.1 +/- 2.0 mmol (kg wet wt)(-1), and muscle lactate increased to 6.8 +/- 2.1 and 9.8 +/- 2.5 mmol (kg wet wt)(-1) during exercise at 60 and 100 r.p.m., respectively. The total release of lactate during exercise was 48.7 +/- 8.8 and 64.3 +/- 10.6 mmol at 60 and 100 r.p.m. (not significant, NS). The total anaerobic ATP production was 47 +/- 8 and 61 +/- 12 mmol kg(-1), respectively (NS).
5. Muscle temperature increased (P < 0.05) from 35.8 +/- 0.3 to 38.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C at 60 r.p.m. and from 35.9 +/- 0.3 to 38.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C at 100 r.p.m. Between 1 and 7 min muscle temperature was higher (P < 0.05) at 100 compared to 60 r.p.m.
6. The estimated mean rate of energy turnover during exercise was higher (P < 0.05) at 100 compared to 60 r.p.m. (238 +/- 16 vs. 194 +/- 11 J s(-1)). Thus, mechanical efficiency was lower (P < 0.05) at 100 r.p.m. (24 +/- 2 %) compared to 60 r.p.m. (28 +/- 3 %). Correspondingly, efficiency expressed as work per mol ATP was lower (P < 0.05) at 100 than at 60 r.p.m. (22.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 26.5 +/- 2.5 J (mmol ATP)(-1)). 7. The present study showed that muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover are elevated during dynamic contractions at a frequency of 100 compared with 60 r.p.m. It was also observed that muscle oxygen uptake increased as exercise progressed in a manner that was not solely related to the increase in muscle temperature and lactate accumulation