Recovery from maximal sprint exercise in Humans

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This meticulous and careful research was carried out by Christina Karatzaferi as part of her PhD working under the supervision of Professor Anthony J Sargeant. The results confirm and validate previous published work and speculation by Tony Sargeant in 1987 (published in the Journal of Applied Physiology) showing the time course of the recovery of high energy phosphate levels in human muscle following maximum sprint exercise. In the 1987 paper it was impossible at that time to measure the PCr and ATP levels in single fibres and the conclusions were based on recovery of muscle power. The present paper was able to link this to a metabolic cause, that is the dependence upon the replenishment of the high energy phosphates in the muscle.

Phosphocreatine and ATP content in human single muscle fibres before and after maximum dynamic exercise

Authors:

Christina Karatzaferi, Arnold de Haan, Richard A Ferguson, Willem van Mechelen, Anthony J Sargeant

Pfluegers Archiv
Pfluegers Arch. 2001 Jun;442(3):467-74
The recovery of high-energy phosphate levels in single human skeletal muscle fibres following short-term maximal (all-out) exercise was investigated. Three male volunteers exercised maximally for 25 s on an isokinetic cycling ergometer. Muscle biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were collected at rest, immediately post-exercise and at 1.5 min of recovery. The subjects also performed a second exercise bout 1.5 min after the first, on a separate occasion. Single muscle fibres were dissected, characterized and assigned to one of four groups according to their myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform content; namely, type I, IIA, IIAx and IIXa (the latter two groups containing either less or more than 50% IIX MyHC). Fibres were analysed for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) levels. Type I fibres had a lower Cr content than type II fibres (P<0.01). Within type II fibres resting [PCr] increased with increasing MyHC IIX isoform content (r=0.59, P<0.01). Post-exercise [PCr] was very low in all fibre groups (P<0.01 versus rest) while great reductions in ATP were also observed (P<0.01 versus rest), especially in the type II fibre groups. [PCr] at 1.5 min of recovery was still lower compared to rest for all fibre groups (P<0.01) especially in the IIAx and IIXa fibres
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Human Muscle fatigue in short term sprint exercise

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Christina Karatzaferi was a talented and very hard working Greek PhD student working in Amsterdam under the supervision of Professor Anthony J Sargeant. The meticulous and time consuming work that she carried out was part of a research programme into human muscle fatigue pursued by Tony Sargeant over many years.

The results show how human muscle fatigue in very short sprint exercise (10 second) is associated with the reduction of high energy phosphate in a small number of fibres in the exercising muscle. Thus the loss of power (that is fatigue) is not attributable to a failure of the whole muscle in the sprint but of a relatively small number of fatigue sensitive fibres.

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Metabolism changes in single human fibres during brief maximal exercise

Authors: Christina Karatzaferi, Arnold de Haan, Willem van Mechelen, Anthony J Sargeant,

Published in:

Experimental Physiology

Exp Physiol. 2001 May;86(3):411-5
Abstract
Changes in high-energy phosphate levels in single human skeletal muscle fibres after 10 s of maximal (all-out) dynamic exercise were investigated. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis of two volunteers were collected at rest and immediately post exercise. Single muscle fibres were dissected from dry muscle and were assigned into one of four groups according to their myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform content: that is type I, IIA, IIAx and IIXa (the latter two groups containing either less or more than 50% IIX MyHC). Fragments of characterised fibres were analysed by HPLC for ATP, inosine-monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine levels. After 10 s of exercise, PCr content ([PCr]) declined by approximately 46, 53, 62 and 59 % in type I, IIA, IIAx and IIXa fibres, respectively (P < 0.01 from rest). [ATP] declined only in type II fibres, especially in IIAx and IIXa fibres in which [IMP] reached mean values of 16 +/- 1 and 18 +/- 4 mmol (kg dry mass)(-1), respectively. While [PCr] was reduced in all fibre types during the brief maximal dynamic exercise, it was apparent that type II fibres expressing the IIX myosin heavy chain isoform were under a greatest metabolic stress as indicated by the reductions in [ATP].

Functional Electrical Stimulation of leg muscles in people with spinal cord injury

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This research publication in the medical journal ‘Spinal Cord’ formed part of a research programme carried out by HL Gerrits under the direction and supervision of Professor Maria Hopman of Radboud University of Nijmegen, Professor Anthony J Sargeant and Arnold de Haan of the Vrije University of Amsterdam. The publication formed a chapter in the PhD thesis of Ms Gerrits.

Altered contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in people with spinal cord injury following functional electrical stimulated cycle training

Gerrits HL, Arnold de Haan, Anthony J Sargeant, Dallmeijer A, Maria T Hopman.

Spinal Cord. 2000 Apr;38(4):214-223

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal training study.
OBJECTIVES: To assess if contractile speed and fatigability of paralysed quadriceps muscles in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) can be altered by functional electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometry (FES-LCE) training.
SETTINGS: The Sint Maartenskliniek rehabilitation centre and the University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
METHODS: Contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle were studied in seven people with motor-complete SCI who participated in a FES-LCE training program. Subjects trained for 30 min, three times per week for 6 weeks. Contractile speed and fatigue characteristics of electrically stimulated isometric contractions were compared before and after 6 weeks of FES-LCE.
RESULTS: Fatigue resistance improved following FES-LCE training as indicated by the higher forces maintained in response to repetitive electrical stimulation. In contrast with an improved fatigue resistance, the maximal rate of force rise was unaffected, the speed of relaxation increased and the fusion of a 10 Hz force signal decreased. Furthermore, the force-frequency relationship shifted to the right at low stimulation frequencies, indicated by a decline in the ratio of 1 and 100 Hz force responses as well as the ratio of 10 and 100 Hz force responses.
CONCLUSION: FES-LCE training can change the physiological properties of the quadriceps muscle in people with SCI. Even after a short period of training, the stimulated muscles become more resistant to fatigue. Furthermore, the increased speed of relaxation and associated decreased fusion and altered force-frequency relationship following training may be related to adaptations in the calcium handling processes, which reflect an early response of long-term disused muscles.

Optimum pedalling rates in cycling

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The data for this research publication was collected in Amsterdam by Jerzy Zoladz and Arno Rademaker working under the supervision of Professor Anthony J Sargeant. The concept of optimum movement frequencies in human locomotion had been a long standing interest of Tony Sargeant’s and the results from this study build on earlier studies. It is concluded that choosing a high pedalling rate (around 100 revs/min) when performing high intensity cycling exercise may be beneficial since it provides greater reserve in power generating capability and this may be advantageous to the muscle in terms of resisting fatigue.

Human muscle power generating capability during cycling at different pedalling rates

Jerzy A Zoladz, Arno C H J Rademaker, and Anthony J Sargeant

Experimental Physiology

Exp Physiol. 2000 Jan;85(1):117-24

Abstract
The effect of different pedalling rates (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 rev min-1) on power generating capability, oxygen uptake (O2) and blood lactate concentration [La]b during incremental tests was studied in seven subjects. No significant differences in O2,max were found (mean +/- S.D., 5.31 +/- 0.13 l min-1). The final external power output delivered to the ergometer during incremental tests (PI,max) was not significantly different when cycling at 60, 80 or 100 rev min-1 (366 +/- 5 W). A significant decrease in PI,max of 60 W was observed at 40 and 120 rev min-1 compared with 60 and 100 rev min-1, respectively (P < 0.01). At 120 rev min-1 there was also a pronounced upward shift of the O2-power output (O2-P) relationship. At 50 W O2 between 80 and 100 rev min-1 amounted to +0.43 l min-1 but to +0.87 l min-1 between 100 and 120 rev min-1. The power output corresponding to 2 and 4 mmol l-1 blood lactate concentration (P[La]2 and P[La]4 ) was also significantly lower (> 50 W) at 120 rev min-1 (P < 0.01) while pedalling at 40, 60, 80 and 100 rev min-1 showed no significant difference. The maximal peak power output (PM, max) during 10 s sprints increased with pedalling rate up to 100 rev min-1. Our study indicates that with increasing pedalling rate the reserves in power generating capability increase, as illustrated by the PI,max/PM,max ratio (54.8, 44.8, 38.1, 34.6, 29.2%), the P[La]4/PM,max ratio (50.4, 38.9, 31.0, 27.7, 22.9%) and the P[La]2/PM,max ratio (42.8, 33.5, 25.6, 23.1, 15.6%) increases.
Taking into consideration the O2,max, the PI,max and the reserve in power generating capability we concluded that choosing a high pedalling rate when performing high intensity cycling exercise may be beneficial since it provides greater reserve in power generating capability and this may be advantageous to the muscle in terms of resisting fatigue. However, beyond 100 rev min-1 there is a decrease in external power that can be delivered for an given O2 with an associated earlier onset of metabolic acidosis and clearly this will be disadvantageous for sustained high intensity exercise.

Force-velocity relationship of human muscle

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The research idea for this study came from Professor Anthony J Sargeant of Amsterdam and Professor David Jones (Birmingham University). It was the culmination of many years of Tony Sargeant encouraging members of his research group in Amsterdam to adapt a technique for studying rat muscle force velocity to small human hand muscles. The data was finally collected by Jo de Ruiter a post-doc in the Amsterdam research group.

The measurement of force/velocity relationships of fresh and fatigued human adductor pollicis muscle.

CJ De Ruiter, David A Jones, Anthony J Sargeant, Arnold de Haan.

European Journal of Applied Physiology
Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999 Sep;80(4):386-93
The purpose of the study was to obtain force/velocity relationships for electrically stimulated (80 Hz) human adductor pollicis muscle (n = 6) and to quantify the effects of fatigue. There are two major problems of studying human muscle in situ; the first is the contribution of the series elastic component, and the second is a loss of force consequent upon the extent of loaded shortening. These problems were tackled in two ways. Records obtained from isokinetic releases from maximal isometric tetani showed a late linear phase of force decline, and this was extrapolated back to the time of release to obtain measures of instantaneous force. This method gave usable data up to velocities of shortening equivalent to approximately one-third of maximal velocity. An alternative procedure (short activation, SA) allowed the muscle to begin shortening when isometric force reached a value that could be sustained during shortening (essentially an isotonic protocol). At low velocities both protocols gave very similar data (r2 = 0.96), but for high velocities only the SA procedure could be used. Results obtained using the SA protocol in fresh muscle were compared to those for muscle that had been fatigued by 25 s of ischaemic isometric contractions, induced by electrical stimulation at the ulnar nerve. Fatigue resulted in a decrease of isometric force [to 69 (3)%], an increase in half-relaxation time [to 431 (10)%], and decreases in maximal shortening velocity [to 77 (8)%] and power [to 42 (5)%].
These are the first data for human skeletal muscle to show convincingly that during acute fatigue, power is reduced as a consequence of both the loss of force and slowing of the contractile speed

Post-Polio Syndrome

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The data collection and analysis of this research study was largely the work of Frans Nollet and Anita Beelen. Other senior authors provided input at various stages of planning and writing. Professor Anthony J Sargeant was the supervisor for the PhD thesis of which this work formed a part.

Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome

Frans Nollet, Anita Beelen, Prins MH, Marianne de Visser, Anthony J Sargeant, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA 

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Feb;80(2):136-143
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.
SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.
RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.
CONCLUSIONS: PPS subjects are more prone to fatigue and have more physical mobility problems than non-PPS subjects. In former polio patients, measurements of perceived health problems and performance tests are the most appropriate instruments for functional evaluation