Both groups showed improvement but there were no significant differences between the groups. In neither trial was there any correlation between the extent of change in the subjects’ physical fitness due to aerobic exercise and the extent of the improvement of psychiatric scores.
Peak power output was measured at 110 rev min-1 and at either 70 or 80 rev min-1 before and after the 12 week training period. Measurements of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were made on 12 subjects before and after training. The greatest change was in the weights lifted in training which increased by 160-200%. This was accompanied by a much smaller increase in maximum isometric force (3-20%). There was no significant change in peak power output at either speed. The VO2max remained unchanged with training. The role of task specificity in training is discussed in relation to training regimes for power athletes and for rehabilitation of patients with muscle weakness.
Symptom-limited maximal data were also collected and these are reported in relation to the energy requirements of some common leisure, occupational and domestic activities.
Prediction of VO2 max from leg muscle (plus bone) volume gave the same order of accuracy. However, it was shown that the VO2 max of the injured leg could be predicted with an accuracy of +/- 5%, if the observed VO2 max data of the uninjured leg and two legs were combined and utilized in the following formula: VO2 max (injured leg) = (A X 2) – VO2 max (uninjured leg), where A is the mean one-leg VO2 max predicted from the two-leg VO2 max observed. It was concluded that wherever possible the one-leg and two-leg VO2 max of patients undergoing rehabilitation therapy should be measured directly. If the patient is unable to pedal the bicycle ergometer with his injured leg alone then the VO2 max of this limb may be predicted from leg volume measurements or from the observed uninjured and two-leg VO2 max with an accuracy of approximately 8%.
MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.
Data are presented for the nine subjects who were biopsied before (PRE) and after training (POST) and separately for the 15 subjects for whom we only have a biopsy before training (cross-sectional group).
RESULTS: There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in fibre type distribution or myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression between the cross-sectional and PRE/POST groups. The mean cross-section fibre area after training (POST) increased by 46% compared with the PRE training status (P < 0.01). The proportion of atrophic fibres decreased significantly after training in type I, IIa and IIx fibre populations (from 51 to 15%, 58 to 21% and 62 to 32%, respectively). Significant differences were also found in capillary contact per fibre (CC/F), with the muscle having 24% (P < 0.05) more CC/F compared with the PRE training status. No significant differences in cytochrome c oxidase concentration were found between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, exercise appeared to be beneficial in renal rehabilitation by correcting the fibre atrophy, increasing the cross-section fibre area and improving the capillarization in the skeletal muscle of renal failure patients
During maximal performance the absolute VO2 max was the same in obese and nonobese subjects but for a given body weight, lean body mass, and leg muscle (plus) bone volume, VO2max was reduced by 23.8, 16.3, and 24.5% respectively, in the former group. It was concluded that obesity though having minimal affect on responses to submaximal exercise is nevertheless associated with a marked reduction in physiological performance at or near maximal effort.